International accounting classification can be done in two ways: By considerations and empirically. Classification with consideration depends on the knowledge, intuition and experience. Classification empirically using statistical methods to collect data accounting principles and practices worldwide.
There are 4 (four) approach to the development of accounting:
A. Based on the macroeconomic approach, obtained from the accounting practices and are designed to improve the national macroeconomic objectives.
2. Based on microeconomic approach, accounting bekembang of microeconomic principles. The goal lies in the individual companies that have the purpose to survive.
3. Based on an independent approach, derived from accounting and business practices developed on an ad hoc, with the base slowly and consideration, trial and error, and errors. Accounting services is seen as a function of the concepts and principles taken from the business process being run, and not from the branches of science such as economics.
4. Based on a uniform approach, accounting distandariasi and used as a tool for administrative control by the central government. Uniformity in the measurement, disclosure, and will facilitate the presentation of the designer of government, tax authorities, and even managers to use accounting information in controlling all types of businesses.
Accounting system can also be classified by the laws of a State:
A. Accounting in common law countries have a fair presentation of the character-oriented, transparency and full disclosure and the separation between financial and tax accounting.
2. Accounting in code law countries have a legalistic-oriented characteristics, does not allow disclosure of the amount is less, and conformity between financial and tax ankuntansi. Bank or financial ksumber dominate the government and financial reporting and financial reporting is intended to protect creditors. Accounting is also called continental.
Many differences in national accounting is becoming increasingly lost. There are several reasons for this:
A. Hundreds of companies today recorded its shares on stock exchanges outside their home country
2. Some state law code, in particular Germany and Japan to shift responsibility from the government’s establishment of accounting standards to private sector groups and independent professional
3. The importance of the stock market as a source of funding is growing worldwide.
• REASONABLE DIFFERENCES IN PRESENTATION AND COMPLIANCE WITH THE LAW IN THE STATE OF DOMINANT
Differences fair presentation and compliance with law through many permasahan. This concerns the adjustments made to the application of IFRS as the basis for the presentation. Some problems include:
A. Depreciation, where the load is determined based on the reduction in the usefulness of an asset during times of economic benefits.
2. Lease which is substantially the purchase of fixed assets (property) treated as such (fair presentation) or treated as operating leases are common (legal compliance).
3. Accrued pension cost at the time generated by the employee (fair presentation) paid or charged on the basis of the time you stop working (legal compliance).
• IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES IN PRESENTATION ISSUES AND REASONABLE COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS
Important issues that occur when it is about the application of IFRS basis sebagau presentation. So that the countries that have not made adjustments to the fair presentation put through his report.
• DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SERVING REASONABLE CAUSE AND EFFECT OF FITNESS FOR LEGAL
Classification based Padada fair presentation versus legal compliance pose a major influence on many accounting issues, such as:
A. depreciation, where the load is determined based on the reduction in the usefulness of an asset over the useful economic (fair presentation) or the amount allowed for tax purposes (legal compliance)
2. lease which is substantially the purchase of fixed assets treated as such (fair presentation) or treated as operating leases are common (legal compliance)
3. pension costs accrued at the time generated by the employee (fair presentation) or charged on the basis paid at the time to stop working (legal compliance).